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Manual Pages  — AUDIT.LOG

NAME

audit – Basic Security Module (BSM) file format

CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION

The audit file format is based on Sun's Basic Security Module (BSM) file format, a token-based record stream to represent system audit data. This file format is both flexible and extensible, able to describe a broad range of data types, and easily extended to describe new data types in a moderately backward and forward compatible way.

BSM token streams typically begin and end with a "file" token, which provides time stamp and file name information for the stream; when processing a BSM token stream from a stream as opposed to a single file source, file tokens may be seen at any point between ordinary records identifying when particular parts of the stream begin and end. All other tokens will appear in the context of a complete BSM audit record, which begins with a "header" token, and ends with a "trailer" token, which describe the audit record. Between these two tokens will appear a variety of data tokens, such as process information, file path names, IPC object information, MAC labels, socket information, and so on.

The BSM file format defines specific token orders for each record event type; however, some variation may occur depending on the operating system in use, what system options, such as mandatory access control, are present.

This manual page documents the common token types and their binary format, and is intended for reference purposes only. It is recommended that application programmers use the libbsm(3) interface to read and write tokens, rather than parsing or constructing records by hand.

File Token

The "file" token is used at the beginning and end of an audit log file to indicate when the audit log begins and ends. It includes a pathname so that, if concatenated together, original file boundaries are still observable, and gaps in the audit log can be identified. A "file" token can be created using au_to_file(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Seconds Ta 4 bytes
File time stamp

Microseconds Ta 4 bytes
File time stamp

File name length Ta 2 bytes
File name of audit trail

File pathname Ta N bytes + 1 NUL
File name of audit trail

Header Token

The "header" token is used to mark the beginning of a complete audit record, and includes the length of the total record in bytes, a version number for the record layout, the event type and subtype, and the time at which the event occurred. A 32-bit "header" token can be created using au_to_header32(3); a 64-bit "header" token can be created using au_to_header64(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Record Byte Count Ta 4 bytes
Number of bytes in record

Version Number Ta 2 bytes
Record version number

Event Type Ta 2 bytes
Event type

Event Modifier Ta 2 bytes
Event sub-type

Seconds Ta 4/8 bytes
Record time stamp (32/64-bits)

Nanoseconds Ta 4/8 bytes
Record time stamp (32/64-bits)

Expanded Header Token

The "expanded header" token is an expanded version of the "header" token, with the addition of a machine IPv4 or IPv6 address. A 32-bit extended "header" token can be created using au_to_header32_ex(3); a 64-bit extended "header" token can be created using au_to_header64_ex(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Record Byte Count Ta 4 bytes
Number of bytes in record

Version Number Ta 2 bytes
Record version number

Event Type Ta 2 bytes
Event type

Event Modifier Ta 2 bytes
Event sub-type

Address Type/Length Ta 1 byte
Host address type and length

Machine Address Ta 4/16 bytes
IPv4 or IPv6 address

Seconds Ta 4/8 bytes
Record time stamp (32/64-bits)

Nanoseconds Ta 4/8 bytes
Record time stamp (32/64-bits)

Trailer Token

The "trailer" terminates a BSM audit record, and contains a magic number, AUT_TRAILER_MAGIC and length that can be used to validate that the record was read properly. A "trailer" token can be created using au_to_trailer(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Trailer Magic Ta 2 bytes
Trailer magic number

Record Byte Count Ta 4 bytes
Number of bytes in record

Arbitrary Data Token

The "arbitrary data" token contains a byte stream of opaque (untyped) data. The size of the data is calculated as the size of each unit of data multiplied by the number of units of data. A "How to print" field is present to specify how to print the data, but interpretation of that field is not currently defined. An "arbitrary data" token can be created using au_to_data(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

How to Print Ta 1 byte
User-defined printing information

Basic Unit Ta 1 byte
Size of a unit in bytes

Unit Count Ta 1 byte
Number of units of data present

Data Items Ta Variable
User data

in_addr Token

The "in_addr" token holds a network byte order IPv4 address. An "in_addr" token can be created using au_to_in_addr(3) for an IPv4 address.
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

IP Address Ta 4 bytes
IPv4 address

Expanded in_addr Token

The "in_addr_ex" token holds a network byte order IPv4 or IPv6 address. An "in_addr_ex" token can be created using au_to_in_addr_ex(3) for an IPv6 address.

See the BUGS section for information on the storage of this token.
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

IP Address Type Ta 1 byte
Type of address

IP Address Ta 4/16 bytes
IPv4 or IPv6 address

ip Token

The "ip" token contains an IP packet header in network byte order. An "ip" token can be created using au_to_ip(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Version and IHL Ta 1 byte
Version and IP header length

Type of Service Ta 1 byte
IP TOS field

Length Ta 2 bytes
IP packet length in network byte order

ID Ta 2 bytes
IP header ID for reassembly

Offset Ta 2 bytes
IP fragment offset and flags, network byte order

TTL Ta 1 byte
IP Time-to-Live

Protocol Ta 1 byte
IP protocol number

Checksum Ta 2 bytes
IP header checksum, network byte order

Source Address Ta 4 bytes
IPv4 source address

Destination Address Ta 4 bytes
IPv4 destination address

iport Token

The "iport" token stores an IP port number in network byte order. An "iport" token can be created using au_to_iport(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Port Number Ta 2 bytes
Port number in network byte order

Path Token

The "path" token contains a pathname. A "path" token can be created using au_to_path(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Path Length Ta 2 bytes
Length of path in bytes

Path Ta N bytes + 1 NUL
Path name

path_attr Token

The "path_attr" token contains a set of NUL-terminated path names. The libbsm(3) API cannot currently create a "path_attr" token.
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Count Ta 2 bytes
Number of NUL-terminated string(s) in token

Path Ta Variable
count NUL-terminated string(s)

Process Token

The "process" token contains a description of the security properties of a process involved as the target of an auditable event, such as the destination for signal delivery. It should not be confused with the "subject" token, which describes the subject performing an auditable event. This includes both the traditional Unix security properties, such as user IDs and group IDs, but also audit information such as the audit user ID and session. A "process" token can be created using au_to_process32(3) or au_to_process64(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Audit ID Ta 4 bytes
Audit user ID

Effective User ID Ta 4 bytes
Effective user ID

Effective Group ID Ta 4 bytes
Effective group ID

Real User ID Ta 4 bytes
Real user ID

Real Group ID Ta 4 bytes
Real group ID

Process ID Ta 4 bytes
Process ID

Session ID Ta 4 bytes
Audit session ID

Terminal Port ID Ta 4/8 bytes
Terminal port ID (32/64-bits)

Terminal Machine Address Ta 4 bytes
IP address of machine

Expanded Process Token

The "expanded process" token contains the contents of the "process" token, with the addition of a machine address type and variable length address storage capable of containing IPv6 addresses. An "expanded process" token can be created using au_to_process32_ex(3) or au_to_process64_ex(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Audit ID Ta 4 bytes
Audit user ID

Effective User ID Ta 4 bytes
Effective user ID

Effective Group ID Ta 4 bytes
Effective group ID

Real User ID Ta 4 bytes
Real user ID

Real Group ID Ta 4 bytes
Real group ID

Process ID Ta 4 bytes
Process ID

Session ID Ta 4 bytes
Audit session ID

Terminal Port ID Ta 4/8 bytes
Terminal port ID (32/64-bits)

Terminal Address Type/Length Ta 1 byte
Length of machine address

Terminal Machine Address Ta 4 bytes
IPv4 or IPv6 address of machine

Return Token

The "return" token contains a system call or library function return condition, including return value and error number associated with the global variable errno. A "return" token can be created using au_to_return32(3) or au_to_return64(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Error Number Ta 1 byte
Errno value, or 0 if undefined

Return Value Ta 4/8 bytes
Return value (32/64-bits)

Subject Token

The "subject" token contains information on the subject performing the operation described by an audit record, and includes similar information to that found in the "process" and "expanded process" tokens. However, those tokens are used where the process being described is the target of the operation, not the authorizing party. A "subject" token can be created using au_to_subject32(3) and au_to_subject64(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Audit ID Ta 4 bytes
Audit user ID

Effective User ID Ta 4 bytes
Effective user ID

Effective Group ID Ta 4 bytes
Effective group ID

Real User ID Ta 4 bytes
Real user ID

Real Group ID Ta 4 bytes
Real group ID

Process ID Ta 4 bytes
Process ID

Session ID Ta 4 bytes
Audit session ID

Terminal Port ID Ta 4/8 bytes
Terminal port ID (32/64-bits)

Terminal Machine Address Ta 4 bytes
IP address of machine

Expanded Subject Token

The "expanded subject" token consists of the same elements as the "subject" token, with the addition of type/length and variable size machine address information in the terminal ID. An "expanded subject" token can be created using au_to_subject32_ex(3) or au_to_subject64_ex(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Audit ID Ta 4 bytes
Audit user ID

Effective User ID Ta 4 bytes
Effective user ID

Effective Group ID Ta 4 bytes
Effective group ID

Real User ID Ta 4 bytes
Real user ID

Real Group ID Ta 4 bytes
Real group ID

Process ID Ta 4 bytes
Process ID

Session ID Ta 4 bytes
Audit session ID

Terminal Port ID Ta 4/8 bytes
Terminal port ID (32/64-bits)

Terminal Address Type/Length Ta 1 byte
Length of machine address

Terminal Machine Address Ta 4 bytes
IPv4 or IPv6 address of machine

System V IPC Token

The "System V IPC" token contains the System V IPC message handle, semaphore handle or shared memory handle. A System V IPC token may be created using +.Xr au_to_ipc 3 .
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Object ID type Ta 1 byte
Object ID

Object ID Ta 4 bytes
Object ID

Text Token

The "text" token contains a single NUL-terminated text string. A "text" token may be created using au_to_text(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Text Length Ta 2 bytes
Length of text string including NUL

Text Ta N bytes + 1 NUL
Text string including NUL

Attribute Token

The "attribute" token describes the attributes of a file associated with the audit event. As files may be identified by 0, 1, or many path names, a path name is not included with the attribute block for a file; optional "path" tokens may also be present in an audit record indicating which path, if any, was used to reach the object. An "attribute" token can be created using au_to_attr32(3) or au_to_attr64(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

File Access Mode Ta 1 byte
mode_t associated with file

Owner User ID Ta 4 bytes
uid_t associated with file

Owner Group ID Ta 4 bytes
gid_t associated with file

File System ID Ta 4 bytes
fsid_t associated with file

File System Node ID Ta 8 bytes
ino_t associated with file

Device Ta 4/8 bytes
Device major/minor number (32/64-bit)

Groups Token

The "groups" token contains a list of group IDs associated with the audit event. A "groups" token can be created using au_to_groups(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Number of Groups Ta 2 bytes
Number of groups in token

Group List Ta N * 4 bytes
List of N group IDs

System V IPC Permission Token

The "System V IPC permission" token contains a System V IPC access permissions. A System V IPC permission token may be created using au_to_ipc_perm(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID
Owner user ID 4 bytes User ID of IPC owner
Owner group ID 4 bytes Group ID of IPC owner
Creator user ID 4 bytes User ID of IPC creator
Creator group ID 4 bytes Group ID of IPC creator
Access mode 4 bytes Access mode
Sequence number 4 bytes Sequence number
Key 4 bytes IPC key

Arg Token

The "arg" token contains information about arguments of the system call. Depending on the size of the desired argument value, an Arg token may be created using au_to_arg32(3) or au_to_arg64(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID
Argument ID 1 byte Argument ID
Argument value 4/8 bytes Argument value
Length 2 bytes Length of the text
Text N bytes + 1 nul The string including nul

exec_args Token

The "exec_args" token contains information about arguments of the exec() system call. An exec_args token may be created using au_to_exec_args(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID
Count 4 bytes Number of arguments
Text * bytes Count nul-terminated strings

exec_env Token

The "exec_env" token contains current environment variables to an exec() system call. An exec_args token may be created using au_to_exec_env(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID
Count ID 4 bytes Number of variables
Text * bytes Count nul-terminated strings

Exit Token

The "exit" token contains process exit/return code information. An "exit" token can be created using au_to_exit(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Status Ta 4 bytes
Process status on exit

Return Value Ta 4 bytes
Process return value on exit

Socket Token

The "socket" token contains information about UNIX domain and Internet sockets. Each token has four or eight fields. Depending on the type of socket, a socket token may be created using au_to_sock_unix(3), au_to_sock_inet32(3) or au_to_sock_inet128(3).
Field Bytes Description
Token ID 1 byte Token ID
Socket family 2 bytes Socket family
Local port 2 bytes Local port
Socket address 4 bytes Socket address

Expanded Socket Token

The "expanded socket" token contains information about IPv4 and IPv6 sockets. A "expanded socket" token can be created using au_to_socket_ex(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description
Token ID 1 byte Token ID
Socket domain 2 bytes Socket domain
Socket type 2 bytes Socket type
Address type 2 byte Address type (IPv4/IPv6)
Local port 2 bytes Local port
Local IP address 4/16 bytes Local IP address
Remote port 2 bytes Remote port
Remote IP address 4/16 bytes Remote IP address

Seq Token

The "seq" token contains a unique and monotonically increasing audit event sequence ID. Due to the limited range of 32 bits, serial number arithmetic and caution should be used when comparing sequence numbers.
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Sequence Number Ta 4 bytes
Audit event sequence number

privilege Token

The "privilege" token ...
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Use-of-auth Token

The "use-of-auth" token ...
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Command Token

The "command" token ...
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

ACL Token

The "ACL" token ...
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Zonename Token

The "zonename" token holds a NUL-terminated string with the name of the zone or jail from which the record originated. A "zonename" token can be created using au_to_zonename(3).
Field Ta Bytes Description

Token ID Ta 1 byte
Token ID

Zonename length Ta 2 bytes
Length of zonename string including NUL

Zonename Ta N bytes + 1 NUL
Zonename string including NUL

SEE ALSO

auditreduce(1), praudit(1), libbsm(3), audit(4), auditpipe(4), audit(8)

HISTORY

The OpenBSM implementation was created by McAfee Research, the security division of McAfee Inc., under contract to Apple Computer Inc. in 2004. It was subsequently adopted by the TrustedBSD Project as the foundation for the OpenBSM distribution.

AUTHORS

The Basic Security Module (BSM) interface to audit records and audit event stream format were defined by Sun Microsystems.

This manual page was written by Robert Watson <rwatson@FreeBSD.org>.

BUGS

The "How to print" field in the "arbitrary data" token has undefined values.

The "in_addr" and "in_addr_ex" token layout documented here appears to be in conflict with the libbsm(3) implementation of au_to_in_addr_ex(3).


AUDIT.LOG (5) November 5, 2006

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