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Manual Pages  — MAKEFS


makefs – create a file system image from a directory tree or a mtree manifest



makefs [-DxZ] [-B endian] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask] [-F mtree-specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-O offset] [-o fs-options] [-R roundup-size] [-S sector-size] [-s image-size] [-T timestamp] [-t fs-type] image-file directory | manifest [extra-directory ...]


The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the directory tree directory or from the mtree manifest manifest. If any optional directory trees are passed in the extra-directory arguments, then the directory tree of each argument will be merged into the directory or manifest first before creating image-file. No special devices or privileges are required to perform this task.

The options are as follows:
-B endian
  Set the byte order of the image to endian. Valid byte orders are ‘4321’, ‘big’, or ‘be’ for big endian, and ‘1234’, ‘little’, or ‘le’ for little endian. Some file systems may have a fixed byte order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.
-b free-blocks
  Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the image. An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
  Treat duplicate paths in an mtree manifest as warnings not error.
-d debug-mask
  Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are set in debug-mask. XXX: document these
-F mtree-specfile
  This is almost certainly not the option you are looking for. To create an image from a list of files in an mtree format manifest, specify it as the last argument on the command line, not as a the argument to -F.

Use mtree-specfile as an mtree(8) 'specfile' specification. This option has no effect when the image is created from a mtree manifest rather than a directory.

If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically overridden by the specfile. An error will be raised if the type of entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.

In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored. Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, and link (in the case of symbolic links). If time is not provided, the current time will be used. If flags is not provided, the current file flags will be used. Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length files.

-f free-files
  Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in the image. An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
-M minimum-size
  Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.
-m maximum-size
  Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size. An error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.
-N userdb-dir
  Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from userdb-dir, rather than using the results from the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.
-O offset
  Instead of creating the filesystem at the beginning of the file, start at offset. Valid only for ffs and msdos.
-o fs-options
  Set file system specific options. fs-options is a comma separated list of options. Valid file system specific options are detailed below.
  Deprecated. See the -Z flag.
-R roundup-size
  Round the image up to roundup-size. roundup-size should be a multiple of the file system block size. This option only applies to the ffs file system type.
-S sector-size
  Set the file system sector size to sector-size. Defaults to 512.
-s image-size
  Set the size of the file system image to image-size. This is equivalent to setting both the minimum -( -M) and the maximum -( -m) sizes to the same value. For ffs and msdos the image-size does not include the offset. offset is not included in that size.
-T timestamp
  Specify a timestamp to be set for all filesystem files and directories created so that repeatable builds are possible. The timestamp can be a pathname, where the timestamps are derived from that file, or an integer value interpreted as the number of seconds from the Epoch. Note that timestamps specified in an mtree(5) spec file, override the default timestamp.
-t fs-type
  Create an fs-type file system image. The following file system types are supported:
ffs BSD fast file system (default).
  ISO 9660 file system.
msdos FAT12, FAT16, or FAT32 file system.
  Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.
  Create a sparse file for ffs. This is useful for virtual machine images.

Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected. Two or more numbers may be separated by an "x" to indicate a product. Each number may have one of the following optional suffixes:
b Block; multiply by 512
k Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
m Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
g Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
t Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
w Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

FFS-specific options

ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided. Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:

avgfilesize Expected average file size.
avgfpdir Expected number of files per directory.
bsize Block size.
density Bytes per inode. If unset, will allocate the minimum number of inodes to represent the filesystem if no free space has been requested (free blocks or minimum size set); otherwise the larger of the newfs defaults or what is required by the free inode parameters if set.
fsize Fragment size.
label Label name of the image.
maxbpg Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
minfree Minimum % free.
  Optimization preference; one of ‘space’ or ‘time’.
extent Maximum extent size.
maxbpcg Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
version UFS version. 1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.
softupdates 0 for disable (default), 1 for enable

CD9660-specific options

cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be provided. The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:

allow-deep-trees Allow the directory structure to exceed the maximum specified in the spec.
allow-illegal-chars Allow illegal characters in filenames. This option is not implemented.
allow-lowercase Allow lowercase characters in filenames. This option is not implemented.
allow-max-name Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for filenames by omitting the version id.
allow-multidot Allow multiple dots in a filename.
applicationid Application ID of the image.
archimedes Use the ‘ARCHIMEDES’ extension to encode RISC OS metadata.
bootimagedir Boot image directory. This option is not implemented.
chrp-boot Write an MBR partition table to the image to allow older CHRP hardware to boot.
boot-load-segment Set load segment for the boot image.
bootimage Filename of a boot image in the format "sysid;filename", where "sysid" is one of ‘i386’, ‘mac68k’, ‘macppc’, ‘powerpc’, or ‘efi’.
generic-bootimage Load a generic boot image into the first 32K of the cd9660 image.
hard-disk-boot Boot image is a hard disk image.
isolevel An integer representing the ISO 9660 interchange level where "level" is either ‘1’ or ‘2’. "level" ‘3’ is not implemented.
keep-bad-images Do not discard images whose write was aborted due to an error. For debugging purposes.
label Label name of the image.
no-boot Boot image is not bootable.
no-emul-boot Boot image is a "no emulation" ElTorito image.
no-trailing-padding Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs the padding).
  Omit trailing periods in filenames.
platformid Set platform ID of section header entry of the boot image.
preparer Preparer ID of the image.
publisher Publisher ID of the image.
rockridge Use RockRidge extensions (for longer filenames, etc.).
verbose Turns on verbose output.
volumeid Volume set identifier of the image.

msdos-specific options

msdos images have MS-DOS-specific optional parameters that may be provided. The arguments consist of a keyword, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value. The following keywords are supported (see newfs_msdos(8) for more details):

backup_sector Location of the backup boot sector.
block_size Block size.
bootstrap Bootstrap file.
bytes_per_sector Bytes per sector.
create_size Create file size.
directory_entries Directory entries.
drive_heads Drive heads.
fat_type FAT type (12, 16, or 32).
floppy Preset drive parameters for standard format floppy disks (160, 180, 320, 360, 640, 720, 1200, 1232, 1440, or 2880).
hidden_sectors Hidden sectors.
info_sector Location of the info sector.
media_descriptor Media descriptor.
num_FAT Number of FATs.
OEM_string OEM string.
offset Offset in device. This option will be ignored if -O is set to a positive number.
reserved_sectors Reserved sectors.
sectors_per_cluster Sectors per cluster.
sectors_per_fat Sectors per FAT.
sectors_per_track Sectors per track.
size File System size.
volume_id Volume ID.
volume_label Volume Label.


mtree(5), mtree(8), newfs(8)


The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD It was ported to FreeBSD and first appeared in FreeBSD 8.0 .


Luke Mewburn <Mt lukem@NetBSD.org> (original program), Daniel Watt, Walter Deignan, Ryan Gabrys, Alan Perez-Rathke, Ram Vedam (cd9660 support), Christos Zoulas (msdos support).

MAKEFS (8) September 17, 2020

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