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utility takes a series of operations from the standard input
(if invoked with
Dump the SAD entries.
Flush the SAD entries.
Only SPD entries with global scope are dumped with
Only SPD entries with ifnet scope are dumped with
Add hexadecimal dump on
Loop forever with short output on
|Be verbose. The program will dump messages exchanged on PF_KEY socket, including messages sent from other processes to the kernel.|
Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to
Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.
Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.
Clear all SPD entries.
Dumps all SPD entries.
Meta-arguments are as follows:
Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
can resolve a FQDN into numeric addresses.
If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses,
will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel
by trying all possible combinations.
|protocol||protocol is one of following:|
|esp||ESP based on rfc2406|
|ESP based on rfc1827|
|ah||AH based on rfc2402|
|ah-old||AH based on rfc1826|
|tcp||TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385|
Security Parameter Index
for the SAD and the SPD.
must be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with
SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
and they cannot be used.
|take some of the following:|
|Specify a security protocol mode for use. mode is one of following: transport, tunnel or any. The default value is any.|
|Specify the bitmap size in octets of the anti-replay window. size is a 32-bit unsigned integer, and its value is one eighth of the anti-replay window size in packets. If size is zero or not specified, an anti-replay check does not take place.|
|Specify the identifier of the policy entry in SPD. See policy.|
|defines the content of the ESP padding. pad_option is one of following:|
|zero-pad||All of the padding are zero.|
|random-pad||A series of randomized values are set.|
|seq-pad||A series of sequential increasing numbers started from 1 are set.|
|Do not allow cyclic sequence number.|
|Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA.|
|Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.|
|Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.|
Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.
key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of hexadecimal digits preceded by ‘0x’.
Possible values for ealgo, aalgo and calgo are specified in separate section.
These are selections of the secure communication specified as
IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
TCP/UDP port specification.
This takes the following form:
address address/prefixlen address[port] address/prefixlen[port]
prefixlen and port must be a decimal number. The square brackets around port are necessary and are not manpage metacharacters. For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst apply here as well.
The upper layer protocol to be used.
You can use one of the words in
as well as
The protocol number may also be used to specify the
A type and code related to ICMPv6 may also be specified as an
The type is specified first, followed by a comma and then the relevant
The specification must be placed after
The kernel considers a zero to be a wildcard but
cannot distinguish between a wildcard and an ICMPv6
type which is zero.
The following example shows a policy where IPSec is not required for
inbound Neighbor Solicitations:
spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;
NOTE: upperspec does not work in the forwarding case at this moment, as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node, which is not implemented at this moment. Although there are many protocols in /etc/protocols, protocols other than TCP, UDP and ICMP may not be suitable to use with IPsec.
is expressed in one of the following three formats:
The direction of a policy must be specified as
means that packets matching the supplied indices will be discarded
means that IPsec operations will not take place on the packet and
means that IPsec operation will take place onto the packet.
statement gives the rule for how to process the packet.
is specified as
you must specify the end-point addresses of the SA as
with a dash,
between the addresses.
can be omitted.
is one of the following:
default, use, require
If the SA is not available in every level, the kernel will request
the SA from the key exchange daemon.
A value of
tells the kernel to use the system wide default protocol
e.g., the one from the
sysctl variable, when the kernel processes the packet.
A value of
means that the kernel will use an SA if it is available,
otherwise the kernel will pass the packet as it would normally.
A value of
means that an SA is required whenever the kernel sends a packet matched
that matches the policy.
level is the same as
but, in addition, it allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound SA.
For example, if you specify the policy level
will configure the SA for the policy.
If you configure the SA by manual keying for that policy,
you can put the decimal number as the policy identifier after
separated by colon
as in the following example:
In order to bind this policy to the SA,
must be between 1 and 32767,
which corresponds to
When you want to use an SA bundle, you can define multiple rules. For example, if an IP header was followed by an AH header followed by an ESP header followed by an upper layer protocol header, the rule would be:
The rule order is very important.
algorithm keylen (bits) comment hmac-md5 128 ah: rfc2403 128 ah-old: rfc2085 hmac-sha1 160 ah: rfc2404 160 ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document) keyed-md5 128 ah: 96bit ICV (no document) 128 ah-old: rfc1828 keyed-sha1 160 ah: 96bit ICV (no document) 160 ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document) null 0 to 2048 for debugging hmac-sha2-256 256 ah: 128bit ICV (RFC4868) 256 ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document) hmac-sha2-384 384 ah: 192bit ICV (RFC4868) 384 ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document) hmac-sha2-512 512 ah: 256bit ICV (RFC4868) 512 ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document) hmac-ripemd160 160 ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857) ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document) aes-xcbc-mac 128 ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566) 128 ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document) tcp-md5 8 to 640 tcp: rfc2385
The following is the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as the
algorithm keylen (bits) comment des-cbc 64 esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405 3des-cbc 192 rfc2451 null 0 to 2048 rfc2410 blowfish-cbc 40 to 448 rfc2451 cast128-cbc 40 to 128 rfc2451 des-deriv 64 ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01 rijndael-cbc 128/192/256 rfc3602 aes-ctr 160/224/288 rfc3686 aes-gcm-16 160/224/288 rfc4106 camellia-cbc 128/192/256 rfc4312
Note that the first 128/192/256 bits of a key for aes-ctr or aes-gcm-16 will be used as AES key, and remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.
The following are the list of compression algorithms that can be used
algorithm comment deflate rfc2394
add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457 -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;Add an authentication SA between two FQDN specified hosts:
add -6 myhost.example.com yourhost.example.com ah 123456 -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;Use both ESP and AH between two numerically specified hosts:
add 10.0.11.41 10.0.11.33 esp 0x10001 -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;Get the SA information associated with first example above:
get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;Flush all entries from the database:
flush ;Dump the ESP entries from the database:
dump esp ;Add a security policy between two networks that uses ESP in tunnel mode:
spdadd 10.0.11.41/32 10.0.11.33/32[any] any -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/192.168.0.1-192.168.1.2/require ;Use TCP MD5 between two numerically specified hosts:
add 10.1.10.34 10.1.10.36 tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ; add 10.1.10.36 10.1.10.34 tcp 0x1001 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;
Changed manual key configuration for IPsec, October 1999.
For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP port number do not work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets (cannot inspect upper-layer headers).
|SETKEY (8)||May 04, 2020|
|Main index||Section 8||日本語||한국인||Options|