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Manual Pages  — RAL

NAME

ral – Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11a/g/n wireless network device

CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS

To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your kernel configuration file: device ral device ralfw device wlan device wlan_amrr device firmware

Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader.conf(5):

if_ral_load="YES"

DESCRIPTION

The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on the Ralink RT2500, RT2501, RT2600, RT2700, RT2800, RT3090 and RT3900E chipsets.

The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2560 MAC/BBP and an RT2525 radio transceiver.

The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11a/b/g adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2561 MAC/BBP and an RT2527 radio transceiver. This chipset provides support for the IEEE 802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations.

The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2661 MAC/BBP and an RT2529 radio transceiver. This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) technology with multiple radio transceivers to extend the operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher throughput. However, the RT2600 chipset does not support any of the 802.11n features.

The RT2700 chipset is a low-cost version of the RT2800 chipset. It supports a single transmit path and two receiver paths (1T2R). It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2760 or RT2790 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and an RT2720 (2.4GHz) or RT2750 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver.

The RT2800 chipset is the first generation of 802.11n adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2860 or RT2890 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and an RT2820 (2.4GHz) or RT2850 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver. The RT2800 chipset supports two transmit paths and up to three receiver paths (2T2R/2T3R). It can achieve speeds up to 144Mbps (20MHz bandwidth) and 300Mbps (40MHz bandwidth.)

The RT3090 chipset is the first generation of single-chip 802.11n adapters from Ralink. ral supports station, adhoc, hostap, mesh, wds, and monitor mode operation. Only one hostap or mesh virtual interface may be configured at a time. Any number of wds virtual interfaces may be configured together with a hostap interface. Multiple station interfaces may be operated together with a hostap interface to construct a wireless repeater device.

The RT3900E chipset is a single-chip 802.11n adapters from Ralink. The MAC/Baseband Processor can be an RT5390 or RT5392. The RT5390 chip operates in the 2GHz spectrum and supports 1 transmit path and 1 receiver path (1T1R). The RT5392 chip operates in the 2GHz spectrum and supports up to 2 transmit paths and 2 receiver paths (2T2R).

The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by the driver depending on the number of hardware transmission retries. For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

HARDWARE

The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on Ralink Technology chipsets, including:

Card MAC/BBP Bus

A-Link WL54H
RT2560 PCI

A-Link WL54PC
RT2560 CardBus

AirLink101 AWLC5025
RT2661 CardBus

AirLink101 AWLH5025
RT2661 PCI

Amigo AWI-914W
RT2560 CardBus

Amigo AWI-922W
RT2560 mini-PCI

Amigo AWI-926W
RT2560 PCI

AMIT WL531C
RT2560 CardBus

AMIT WL531P
RT2560 PCI

AOpen AOI-831
RT2560 PCI

ASUS WL-107G
RT2560 CardBus

ASUS WL-130g
RT2560 PCI

Atlantis Land A02-PCI-W54
RT2560 PCI

Atlantis Land A02-PCM-W54
RT2560 CardBus

Belkin F5D7000 v3
RT2560 PCI

Belkin F5D7010 v2
RT2560 CardBus

Billionton MIWLGRL
RT2560 mini-PCI

Canyon CN-WF511
RT2560 PCI

Canyon CN-WF513
RT2560 CardBus

CC&C WL-2102
RT2560 CardBus

CNet CWC-854
RT2560 CardBus

CNet CWP-854
RT2560 PCI

Compex WL54G
RT2560 CardBus

Compex WLP54G
RT2560 PCI

Conceptronic C54RC
RT2560 CardBus

Conceptronic C54Ri
RT2560 PCI

D-Link DWA-525 rev A2
RT5392 PCI

Digitus DN-7001G-RA
RT2560 CardBus

Digitus DN-7006G-RA
RT2560 PCI

E-Tech WGPC02
RT2560 CardBus

E-Tech WGPI02
RT2560 PCI

Edimax EW-7108PCg
RT2560 CardBus

Edimax EW-7128g
RT2560 PCI

Eminent EM3036
RT2560 CardBus

Eminent EM3037
RT2560 PCI

Encore ENLWI-G-RLAM
RT2560 PCI

Encore ENPWI-G-RLAM
RT2560 CardBus

Fiberline WL-400P
RT2560 PCI

Fibreline WL-400X
RT2560 CardBus

Gigabyte GN-WI01GS
RT2561S mini-PCI

Gigabyte GN-WIKG
RT2560 mini-PCI

Gigabyte GN-WMKG
RT2560 CardBus

Gigabyte GN-WP01GS
RT2561S PCI

Gigabyte GN-WPKG
RT2560 PCI

Hawking HWC54GR
RT2560 CardBus

Hawking HWP54GR
RT2560 PCI

iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03)
RT2560 PCI

JAHT WN-4054P
RT2560 CardBus

JAHT WN-4054PCI
RT2560 PCI

LevelOne WNC-0301 v2
RT2560 PCI

LevelOne WPC-0301 v2
RT2560 CardBus

Linksys WMP54G v4
RT2560 PCI

Micronet SP906GK
RT2560 PCI

Micronet SP908GK V3
RT2560 CardBus

Minitar MN54GCB-R
RT2560 CardBus

Minitar MN54GPC-R
RT2560 PCI

MSI CB54G2
RT2560 CardBus

MSI MP54G2
RT2560 mini-PCI

MSI PC54G2
RT2560 PCI

OvisLink EVO-W54PCI
RT2560 PCI

PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA
RT2560 PCI

Planex GW-NS300N
RT2860 CardBus

Pro-Nets CB80211G
RT2560 CardBus

Pro-Nets PC80211G
RT2560 PCI

Repotec RP-WB7108
RT2560 CardBus

Repotec RP-WP0854
RT2560 PCI

SATech SN-54C
RT2560 CardBus

SATech SN-54P
RT2560 PCI

Sitecom WL-112
RT2560 CardBus

Sitecom WL-115
RT2560 PCI

SMC SMCWCB-GM
RT2661 CardBus

SMC SMCWPCI-GM
RT2661 PCI

SparkLAN WL-685R
RT2560 CardBus

Surecom EP-9321-g
RT2560 PCI

Surecom EP-9321-g1
RT2560 PCI

Surecom EP-9428-g
RT2560 CardBus

Sweex LC500050
RT2560 CardBus

Sweex LC700030
RT2560 PCI

TekComm NE-9321-g
RT2560 PCI

TekComm NE-9428-g
RT2560 CardBus

Unex CR054g-R02
RT2560 PCI

Unex MR054g-R02
RT2560 CardBus

Zinwell ZWX-G160
RT2560 CardBus

Zinwell ZWX-G360
RT2560 mini-PCI

Zinwell ZWX-G361
RT2560 PCI

Zonet ZEW1500
RT2560 CardBus

Zonet ZEW1600
RT2560 PCI

EXAMPLES

Join an existing BSS network (i.e., connect to an access point):

    ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00

Join a specific BSS network with network name "my_net":

ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
    netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

Join a specific BSS network with 40-bit WEP encryption:

ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
    netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
    wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 weptxkey 1

Join a specific BSS network with 104-bit WEP encryption:

ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
    netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
    wepmode on wepkey 0x01020304050607080910111213 weptxkey 1

DIAGNOSTICS

ral%d: could not load 8051 microcode An error occurred while attempting to upload the microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.
ral%d: timeout waiting for MCU to initialize The onboard 8051 microcontroller unit failed to initialize in time.
ral%d: device timeout A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This should not happen.

SEE ALSO

cardbus(4), intro(4), wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4), wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4), wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8), wpa_supplicant(8) http://www.ralinktech.com/

Ralink Technology,

HISTORY

The ral driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7 . Support for the RT2501 and RT2600 chipsets was added in OpenBSD 3.9 . Support for the RT2800 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.3 . Support for the RT2700 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.4 . Support for the RT3090 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.9 .

AUTHORS

The original ral driver was written by Damien Bergamini <Mt damien@openbsd.org>.

CAVEATS

The ral driver does not make use of the hardware cryptographic engine.

The ral driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered by the RT2700 and RT2800 chipsets. Additional work is required in before those features can be supported.

Host AP mode doesn't support power saving. Clients attempting to use power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power saving on the client will fix this).

Some PCI ral adapters seem to strictly require a system supporting PCI 2.2 or greater and will likely not work in systems based on older revisions of the PCI specification. Check the board's PCI version before purchasing the card.


RAL (4) August 4, 2015

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