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Manual Pages  — BUILD

NAME

build – information on how to build the system

CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION

The sources for the FreeBSD system and its applications are contained in three different directories, normally /usr/src, /usr/doc, and /usr/ports. These directories may be initially empty or non-existent until updated with svn(1) or portsnap(8). Directory /usr/src contains the "base system" sources, which is loosely defined as the things required to rebuild the system to a useful state. Directory /usr/doc contains the source for the system documentation, excluding the manual pages. Directory /usr/ports contains a tree that provides a consistent interface for building and installing third party applications. For more information about the ports build process, see ports(7).

The make(1) command is used in each of these directories to build and install the things in that directory. Issuing the make(1) command in any directory or subdirectory of those directories has the same effect as issuing the same command in all subdirectories of that directory. With no target specified, the things in that directory are just built.

A source tree is allowed to be read-only. As described in make(1), objects are usually built in a separate object directory hierarchy specified by the environment variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX, or under /usr/obj if variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX is not set. For a given source directory, its canonical object directory would be ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} if make(1) variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX is set, or /usr/obj${.CURDIR} if this variable is not set. Cross-builds set the object directory as described in the documentation for the buildworld target below.

The build may be controlled by defining make(1) variables described in the ENVIRONMENT section below, and by the variables documented in make.conf(5).

The following list provides the names and actions for the targets supported by the build system:
analyze Run Clang static analyzer against all objects and present output on stdout.
check Run tests for a given subdirectory. The default directory used is ${.OBJDIR}, but the check directory can be changed with ${CHECKDIR}.
checkworld Run the FreeBSD test suite on installed world.
clean Remove any files created during the build process.
cleandepend
  Remove the ${.OBJDIR}/${DEPENDFILE}* files generated by prior "make" and "make depend" steps.
cleandir Remove the canonical object directory if it exists, or perform actions equivalent to "make clean cleandepend" if it does not. This target will also remove an obj link in ${.CURDIR} if that exists.

It is advisable to run "make cleandir" twice: the first invocation will remove the canonical object directory and the second one will clean up ${.CURDIR}.

depend Generate a list of build dependencies in file ${.OBJDIR}/${DEPENDFILE}. Per-object dependencies are generated at build time and stored in ${.OBJDIR}/${DEPENDFILE}.${OBJ}.
install Install the results of the build to the appropriate location in the installation directory hierarchy specified in variable DESTDIR.
obj Create the canonical object directory associated with the current directory.
objlink Create a symbolic link to the canonical object directory in ${.CURDIR}.
tags Generate a tags file using the program specified in the make(1) variable CTAGS. The build system supports ctags(1) and GNU Global.

The other supported targets under directory /usr/src are:
buildenv Spawn an interactive shell with environment variables set up for cross-building the system. The target architecture needs to be specified with make(1) variables TARGET_ARCH and TARGET.

This target is only useful after a complete cross-toolchain including the compiler, linker, assembler, headers and libraries has been built; see the toolchain target below.

buildworld Build everything but the kernel, configure files in etc, and release. The object directory can be changed from the default /usr/obj by setting the MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX make(1) variable. The actual build location prefix used is ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} for native builds, and ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}/${TARGET}${.CURDIR} for cross builds and native builds with variable CROSS_BUILD_TESTING set.
cleanworld Attempt to clean up targets built by a preceding buildworld step.
distributeworld
  Distribute everything compiled by a preceding buildworld step. Files are placed in the directory hierarchy specified by make(1) variable DISTDIR. This target is used while building a release; see release(7).
packageworld Archive the results of distributeworld, placing the results in DISTDIR. This target is used while building a release; see release(7).
installworld Install everything built by a preceding buildworld step into the directory hierarchy pointed to by make(1) variable DESTDIR.

If installing onto an NFS file system and running make(1) with the -j option, make sure that rpc.lockd(8) is running on both client and server. See rc.conf(5) on how to make it start at boot time.

toolchain Create the build toolchain needed to build the rest of the system. For cross-architecture builds, this step creates a cross-toolchain.
universe For each architecture, execute a buildworld followed by a buildkernel for all kernels for that architecture, including LINT. This command takes a long time.
update Get updated sources as configured in make.conf(5).
targets Print a list of supported TARGET / TARGET_ARCH pairs for world and kernel targets.
tinderbox Execute the same targets as universe. In addition print a summary of all failed targets at the end and exit with an error if there were any.
toolchains Create a build toolchain for each architecture supported by the build system.

Kernel specific build targets in /usr/src are:
buildkernel Rebuild the kernel and the kernel modules. The object directory can be changed from the default /usr/obj by setting the MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX make(1) variable.
installkernel Install the kernel and the kernel modules to directory ${DESTDIR}/boot/kernel, renaming any pre-existing directory with this name to kernel.old if it contained the currently running kernel. The target directory under ${DESTDIR} may be modified using the INSTKERNNAME and KODIR make(1) variables.
distributekernel
  Install the kernel to the directory ${DISTDIR}/kernel/boot/kernel. This target is used while building a release; see release(7).
packagekernel Archive the results of distributekernel, placing the results in DISTDIR. This target is used while building a release; see release(7).
kernel Equivalent to buildkernel followed by installkernel
kernel-toolchain
  Rebuild the tools needed for kernel compilation. Use this if you did not do a buildworld first.
reinstallkernel Reinstall the kernel and the kernel modules, overwriting the contents of the target directory. As with the installkernel target, the target directory can be specified using the make(1) variable INSTKERNNAME.

Convenience targets for cleaning up the install destination directory denoted by variable DESTDIR include:
check-old Print a list of old files and directories in the system.
delete-old Delete obsolete base system files and directories interactively. When -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES is specified at the command line, the delete operation will be non-interactive. The variables DESTDIR, TARGET_ARCH and TARGET should be set as with "make installworld".
delete-old-libs
  Delete obsolete base system libraries interactively. This target should only be used if no third party software uses these libraries. When -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES is specified at the command line, the delete operation will be non-interactive. The variables DESTDIR, TARGET_ARCH and TARGET should be set as with "make installworld".

ENVIRONMENT

Variables that influence all builds include:
DEBUG_FLAGS
  Defines a set of debugging flags that will be used to build all userland binaries under /usr/src. When DEBUG_FLAGS is defined, the install and installworld targets install binaries from the current MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX without stripping, so that debugging information is retained in the installed binaries.
DESTDIR
  The directory hierarchy prefix where built objects will be installed. If not set, DESTDIR defaults to the empty string.
MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX
  Defines the prefix for directory names in the tree of built objects. Defaults to /usr/obj if not defined. This variable should only be set in the environment and not via /etc/make.conf or the command line.
NO_WERROR
  If defined, compiler warnings will not cause the build to halt, even if the makefile says otherwise.
WITH_CTF
  If defined, the build process will run the DTrace CTF conversion tools on built objects.

Additionally, builds in /usr/src are influenced by the following make(1) variables:
KERNCONF
  Overrides which kernel to build and install for the various kernel make targets. It defaults to GENERIC.
KERNFAST
  If set, the build target buildkernel defaults to setting NO_KERNELCLEAN, NO_KERNELCONFIG, and NO_KERNELOBJ. When set to a value other than 1 then KERNCONF is set to the value of KERNFAST.
LOCAL_DIRS
  If set, this variable supplies a list of additional directories relative to the root of the source tree to build as part of the everything target. The directories are built in parallel with each other, and with the base system directories. Insert a .WAIT directive at the beginning of the LOCAL_DIRS list to ensure all base system directories are built first. .WAIT may also be used as needed elsewhere within the list.
LOCAL_ITOOLS
  If set, this variable supplies a list of additional tools that are used by the installworld and distributeworld targets.
LOCAL_LIB_DIRS
  If set, this variable supplies a list of additional directories relative to the root of the source tree to build as part of the libraries target. The directories are built in parallel with each other, and with the base system libraries. Insert a .WAIT directive at the beginning of the LOCAL_DIRS list to ensure all base system libraries are built first. .WAIT may also be used as needed elsewhere within the list.
LOCAL_MTREE
  If set, this variable supplies a list of additional mtrees relative to the root of the source tree to use as part of the hierarchy target.
LOCAL_TOOL_DIRS
  If set, this variable supplies a list of additional directories relative to the root of the source tree to build as part of the build-tools target.
PORTS_MODULES
  A list of ports with kernel modules that should be built and installed as part of the buildkernel and installkernel process.
make PORTS_MODULES=emulators/kqemu-kmod kernel
STRIPBIN
  Command to use at install time when stripping binaries. Be sure to add any additional tools required to run STRIPBIN to the LOCAL_ITOOLS make(1) variable before running the distributeworld or installworld targets. See install(1) for more details.
SUBDIR_OVERRIDE
  Override the default list of sub-directories and only build the sub-directory named in this variable. If combined with buildworld then all libraries and includes, and some of the build tools will still build as well. When combined with buildworld it is necesarry to override LOCAL_LIB_DIRS with any custom directories containing libraries. This allows building a subset of the system in the same way as buildworld does using its sysroot handling. This variable can also be useful when debugging failed builds.
make some-target SUBDIR_OVERRIDE=foo/bar
TARGET
  The target hardware platform. This is analogous to the "uname" output. This is necessary to cross-build some target architectures. For example, cross-building for PC98 machines requires TARGET_ARCH=i386 and TARGET=pc98. If not set, TARGET defaults to the current hardware platform, unless TARGET_ARCH is also set, in which case it defaults to the appropriate value for that architecture.
TARGET_ARCH
  The target machine processor architecture. This is analogous to the "uname" output. Set this to cross-build for a different architecture. If not set, TARGET_ARCH defaults to the current machine architecture, unless TARGET is also set, in which case it defaults to the appropriate value for that platform. Typically, one only needs to set TARGET.

Builds under directory /usr/src are also influenced by defining one or more of the following symbols, using the -D option of make(1):
NO_CLEANDIR
  If set, the build targets that clean parts of the object tree use the equivalent of "make clean" instead of "make cleandir".
NO_CLEAN
  If set, no object tree files are cleaned at all. This is the default when WITH_META_MODE is used with filemon(4) loaded. See src.conf(5) for more details. Setting NO_CLEAN implies NO_KERNELCLEAN, so when NO_CLEAN is set no kernel objects are cleaned either.
NO_CTF
  If set, the build process does not run the DTrace CTF conversion tools on built objects.
NO_SHARE
  If set, the build does not descend into the /usr/src/share subdirectory (i.e., manual pages, locale data files, timezone data files and other /usr/src/share files will not be rebuild from their sources).
NO_KERNELCLEAN
  If set, the build process does not run "make clean" as part of the buildkernel target.
NO_KERNELCONFIG
  If set, the build process does not run config(8) as part of the buildkernel target.
NO_KERNELOBJ
  If set, the build process does not run "make obj" as part of the buildkernel target.
NO_DOCUPDATE
  If set, the update process does not update the source of the FreeBSD documentation as part of the "make update" target.
NO_PORTSUPDATE
  If set, the update process does not update the Ports tree as part of the "make update" target.
NO_WWWUPDATE
  If set, the update process does not update the www tree as part of the "make update" target.

Builds under directory /usr/doc are influenced by the following make(1) variables:
DOC_LANG
  If set, restricts the documentation build to the language subdirectories specified as its content. The default action is to build documentation for all languages.

Builds using the universe target are influenced by the following make(1) variables:
JFLAG
  Pass the value of this variable to each make(1) invocation used to build worlds and kernels. This can be used to enable multiple jobs within a single architecture's build while still building each architecture serially.
MAKE_JUST_KERNELS
  Only build kernels for each supported architecture.
MAKE_JUST_WORLDS
  Only build worlds for each supported architecture.
UNIVERSE_TARGET
  Execute the specified make(1) target for each supported architecture instead of the default action of building a world and one or more kernels.

FILES

/usr/doc/Makefile
/usr/doc/share/mk/doc.project.mk
/usr/ports/Mk/bsd.port.mk
/usr/ports/Mk/bsd.sites.mk
/usr/share/examples/etc/make.conf
/usr/src/Makefile
/usr/src/Makefile.inc1
 

EXAMPLES

For an "approved" method of updating your system from the latest sources, please see the COMMON ITEMS section in src/UPDATING.

The following sequence of commands can be used to cross-build the system for the armv6 architecture on an amd64 host:

cd /usr/src
make TARGET_ARCH=armv6 buildworld buildkernel
make TARGET_ARCH=armv6 DESTDIR=/clients/arm64 installworld installkernel

SEE ALSO

cc(1), install(1), make(1), svn(1), make.conf(5), src.conf(5), arch(7), ports(7), release(7), tests(7), config(8), mergemaster(8), portsnap(8), reboot(8), shutdown(8)

AUTHORS

Mike W. Meyer <Mt mwm@mired.org>

BUILD (7) May 11, 2017

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Please direct any comments about this manual page service to Ben Bullock.

On two occasions I have been asked [by members of Parliament], 'Pray, Mr. Babbage, if you put into the machine wrong figures, will the right answers come out?' I am not able rightly to apprehend the kind of confusion of ideas that could provoke such a question.
— Charles Babbage