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The sa utility is able to condense the information in /var/account/acct into the summary files /var/account/savacct and /var/account/usracct, which contain system statistics according to command name and login id, respectively. This condensation is desirable because on a large system, /var/account/acct can grow by hundreds of blocks per day. The summary files are normally read before the accounting file, so that reports include all available information.
If file names are supplied, they are read instead of /var/account/acct. After each file is read, if the summary files are being updated, an updated summary will be saved to disk. Only one report is printed, after the last file is processed.
The labels used in the output indicate the following, except where otherwise specified by individual options:
|avio||Average number of I/O operations per execution|
|cp||Sum of user and system time, in minutes|
|cpu||Same as cp|
|k||CPU-time averaged core usage, in 1k units|
|k*sec||CPU storage integral, in 1k-core seconds|
|re||Real time, in minutes|
|s||System time, in minutes|
|tio||Total number of I/O operations|
|u||User time, in minutes|
The options to sa are:
|List all command names, including those containing unprintable characters and those used only once. By default, sa places all names containing unprintable characters and those used only once under the name ``***other''.|
|If printing command statistics, sort output by the sum of user and system time divided by number of calls.|
|In addition to the number of calls and the user, system and real times for each command, print their percentage of the total over all commands.|
|If printing command statistics, sort by the average number of disk I/O operations. If printing user statistics, print the average number of disk I/O operations per user.|
|If printing command statistics, sort and print by the total number of disk I/O operations.|
Force no interactive threshold comparison with the
|Do not read in the summary files.|
|Instead of the total minutes per category, give seconds per call.|
|If printing command statistics, sort by the cpu-time average memory usage. If printing user statistics, print the cpu-time average memory usage.|
|If printing command statistics, print and sort by the cpu-storage integral.|
|Separate system and user time; normally they are combined.|
|Print per-user statistics rather than per-command statistics.|
|Sort by number of calls.|
|Use the specified file for accessing the per-command accounting summary database, instead of the default /var/account/savacct.|
|Create no output other than error messages.|
|Reverse order of sort.|
|Truncate the accounting files when done and merge their data into the summary files.|
|For each command, report the ratio of real time to the sum of user and system cpu times. If the cpu time is too small to report, ``*ignore*'' appears in this field.|
|Use the specified file for accessing the per-user accounting summary database, instead of the default /var/account/usracct.|
|Superseding all other flags, for each entry in the accounting file, print the user ID, total seconds of cpu usage, total memory usage, number of I/O operations performed, and command name.|
|For each command used cutoff times or fewer, print the command name and await a reply from the terminal. If the reply begins with ``y'', add the command to the category ``**junk**''. This flag is used to strip garbage from the report.|
By default, per-command statistics will be printed.
The number of
calls, the total elapsed time in minutes, total cpu and user time
in minutes, average number of I/O operations, and CPU-time
averaged core usage will be printed.
|/var/account/acct||raw accounting data file|
|per-command accounting summary database|
|per-user accounting summary database|
The formats of the summary files created by this version of sa are very different from the those used by the original version. This is not considered a problem, however, because the accounting record format has changed as well (since user ids are now 32 bits).
The field labels should be more consistent.
The VM system does not record the CPU storage integral.
|SA (8)||February 14, 2020|
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|“||This philosophy, in the hands of amateurs, leads to inexplicably mind-numbing botches like the existence of two programs, “head” and “tail,” which print the first part or the last part of a file, depending. Even though their operations are duals of one another, “head” and “tail” are different programs, written by different authors, and take different options!||”|
|— The Unix Haters' handbook|